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Tips for authors

AOSL manuscripts are submitted, reviewed, edited, and published in electronic format. Articles are also published in print journals after online publication.

This Author Guide will provide you with information and specifications for submission and approval of journal articles. Reading and using the advice in this guide will help your article publish more quickly.

Open access   
Each article published in   Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters  is published   Open Access, which means that,   upon payment of an article publishing charge (APC), the article is freely and permanently available on Taylor & Francis Group's online platform There is no additional subscription fee, article pay-to-view fee or any other form of access fee; and no publication embargo is applied.   

More information about Taylor & Francis Open and Routledge Open

Prepare your manuscript according to the AOSL
Formatting, Manuscript components, Mathematical Formulas, Symbols and Units, Figures, and References guidelines.


    Authors will be asked to provide final manuscripts including tables and figures as electronic files when submitting. Acceptable file formats for submission are Word and PDF. For best compatibility with reviewers’ computer, it is required to submit the manuscript in PDF format firstly.
    In the final publishing process, the preferred file formats for the text part of a manuscript including the tables are Word and LaTex. However, as the final output of AOSL’s typesetting system is in PS format. Graphics in vector-based format (PS, PDF, Adobe Illustrator) are preferred in most circumstances. In some cases, high-resolution and good-quality raster figures pixel-based could also be accepted.

Manuscript components
Each manuscript should include the following components, presented in the order shown.
1) Title, name and affiliation of each author provided on the title page.
2) Abstract
A brief, concise abstract is required at the beginning of each manuscript. The abstract should summarize the principal conclusions arrived at in the paper and the methods used to reach them. The abstract should be 250 words or less in length. Unless absolutely essential, the abstract should contain no mathematical expressions and should refrain from including citations or footnotes, and should not use the first person.
3) Key words
4-6  key words should be provided.
4) Text
The text (12-point) should be typesetted in one column, divided into sections, each with a separate heading and numbered consecutively using following format 
1.Primary heading
1.1 Secondary heading
1.1.1Tertiary heading Quaternary heading
5) Acknowledgements
Keep this section as brief as possible by acknowledging only direct assistance in your research and writing. Financial support for the work done should be acknowledged here rather than as footnotes to the title.
6) References
References should be arranged alphabetically without numbering. Citations to standard references in text should consist of the name of the author and the year of publication—for example, Wang (1990) or (Wang 1990). If there are four or more authors, state the first author’s surname, followed by "et al." and the year of publication—for example, Wang et al. (1990) or (Wang et al. 1990). When there are two or more papers by the same author or authors in the same year, distinguishing letters (a, b, c, etc.) should be added to the year in both the citation in text and the reference listing, for example, Wang (1990a). For multiple citations by one author, separate years by commas, for example, Wang (1989, 1990) or (Wang 1989, 1990). Separate multiple citations by different authors within the same parentheses by semicolons, for example, (Wang 1990; Li 1991) or (Wang 1989, 1990; Li 1991).
7) Figure captions
Each figure must be supplied with a self-explanatory caption and all captions should be listed together. Authors should include captions below the figures for the reviewer copies, but the figure originals should not have captions below them.
8) Illustrations and tables
Each figure and table should be numbered consecutively and cited specifically in the text by number. All tables should have a title or legend. 

Mathematical Formulas, Symbols and Units 
    Fractions and other complicated equation structures should better not be mixed together with text. Instead, complicated expressions can be centered on their own line by using the equation number in parentheses set flush right consecutively to facilitate their citation in the text.
    Different typefaces should be set for different kinds of variables. Scalar variables are set as italic (e.g., a), and vectors, matrices and tensors are set as bold italic (e.g., V). Symbols, which might be misread, such as misinterpreting a Greek rho for a roman or a Greek nu for an italic v, should be identified with a notation in black pencil on the printed copy to avoid typo.
    Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly. As a decimal sign, a full stop is preferred; crosses should be reserved for multiplications.
    Each author should make a clear distinction between the letter o and the zero symbol, also between the number 1 and the letter l.
    Units should be SI with the exception of a few approved non-SI units of wide meteorological or oceanographic usage. Units should be set in roman font using exponents rather than the solidus (/) and with a one-letter space between each unit in a compound set (e.g., m s-1 rather than m/s or ms-1).
       Figures often pose tough problems for both editors and publishers. In this section, detailed instructions for preparing successful figures will be given. Please follow the steps to produce acceptable figures to smoothen the publication process. Besides, Figures FAQ explain frequently occurred problems during the publishing process and our solutions.
Tips for authors to prepare figures: 
    1. Strive to produce the figures as 100% of the publication size. Figures are adjusted into two sizes for published product, one-column size of about 60-80 mm wide and two-column size of about 120-160 mm wide. Please have this in mind when setting approprite font size in figures.
    2. Standard font and size for axis numbers are Arial 9 pt for the publication size. For axis titles, the size could be enlarged to Arial 10 pt. For descriptive numbers and words in the figure, please ensure they are readable in minimal publishing size. Choose  fonts carefully (please refer to the aforementioned publication size) and embed all fonts used. If it is difficult for you to embed all the fonts, please convert the font to paths (or outlines). For example, please create font outlines for figures drawn in Adobe Acrobat Illustrator to avoid font transformation or missing.
    3. In the 100% publication size, resolution for graphic files must be 300–600 dots-per-inch resolution (dpi) for color and gray-scale images and at lease 600 dpi for black and white line images. Please note that enlargement of figures would decrease the resolution. For example, a 400 PPI image scaled at 200% becomes a 200 PPI one.
    4. In almost all the circumstances, line thickness for lines, numbers, and words should be at least 0.3 pt. Otherwise, they might appear broken or disappear in the publication. Please note that reduction of figure size will make line weight thinner. For  example, a 1-point line scaled at 50% becomes a 0.5-point line.
    5. Information, if clearly explained in the figure caption, would be deemed redundant in the drawings. Please strive to make your figures both readable and concise.
    6. For axis titles, please just capitalize the first letter of the first word.
    7. It is better to denote combined units with negative exponent than backslash. Meanwhile, please note that there is a one-letter space between different unit symbols.
    8. For subfigures, lettering labels(a), (b),(c)... , are expected to be positioned in the corners of the figures without interfering other part of that figure. And the position of lettering labels for one main figure should be placed in the same position respectively, for an example, both in bottom-left corner. Please note that, the labels should be written in white ground without overlapping with the other part of the figure.
    9. For color figures, CMYK is required for the print version of the journal. Authors should clearly indicate which figures are intended to be published in color when submitting. For figures in color but not intended to be published in color, it is strongly recommend to reproduce them in black and white to ensure the printing quality. 
    10. Please note that figures as well as tables should be separated from the text for  the convenience of editors and reviewers when submitting.
Figure FAQ
    1. Why vector-based figures are preferred to pixel-based?
        Usually, vector-based formats (eps, ps, pdf etc.) is preferred to pixel-based (bmp, jpeg etc.) because resize or conversion to other formats would not reduce the quality of  vector-based figures.
    2. Why high-resolution good-quality raster figures are acceptable?
        For an example, Tiff is vector-based but could be turned into clear pdf or eps formate if the original figure is in actual high resolution. However, if the original figure is not clear in the first place, it might not improve the graphic quality to increase the resolution 600 dpi or even higher.
    3. Why my figures are labeled as fuzzy or saw-toothed?
        Figures are converted into eps format before adapted into our typesetting system.  As eps format is vector-based, for figures in pixel-based formats, for example, jpg, bmp, psd, gif, after the conversion, the quality will be greatly diminished and might appear  fuzzy.
    4. Why there is a shadow in my figure?
        Insertion of figures into word or PPT might create a shadow. You could try to  provide us the figures in source format.
    5. Why line thickness should be at lease 0.3 pt?
        The printing resolution is lower than the figure itself. The lines will appear broken instead of continuous for line thickness lower than 0.2pt in final printed product.
    6. Why the authors should strive to produce figures at 100% the size of the final printed product?
        It is strongly recommended that the authors produce the figures at the size as that would appear in the publication to ensure appropriate font size and line thickness.
    7. What is CMYK?
        CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) figures are widely used for printing.
    8. Why all the fonts need be imbedded or converted to paths or outlines?
        It is recommended that all the fonts be embedded when first created. If it is difficult to embed the fonts in the figure-drawing software, it is alternative to create  outlines for the fonts used. In some cases, fonts used in the creation of a figure would be converted to a totally different font or get lost when converted to another format if the fonts are not embedded or created with outlines.

References should be given alphabetically without numbering at the end of the paper. References must be complete and properly formatted and only literature cited in the text can be listed.  Please follow the description of the Journal's reference style.
1) For typical journal citations it follows the form:
Author(s). publication year. "Article title." Journal title in full volume: page range.
For example,
Boville, B. A., and J. W. Hurrell. 1998. "A comparison of the atmospheric circulations simulated by the CCM3 and CSM1." Journal of Climate 11: 1327-1341.
Li, H., A. Dai, T. Zhou, et al.. 2010. "Responses of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950–2000." Climate Dynamics 34: 501–514. doi:10.1007/s00382- 008-0482-7.
2) For a book it follows the form:
Author(s). publication year. Book Title. City: Publisher.
3) For a chapter in a book it follows the form:
Author(s). publication year. "chapter title." In Book Title, edited by Editor(s), page range. City: Publisher.
For example,
Zhang, R.-H, and J.-P. Chao. 1993. "Mechanisms of interannual variations in a simple air-sea coupled model in the tropics." In Climate Variability, edited by D. Ye et al., 236-244. Beijing: China Meteorological Press.
4) For academic dissertations it follows the form:
Author(s). publication year. "title of thesis." PHD diss., University name.
5) Other examples:
Example for a presentation at a conference:
Zeng, Q.. 1994. "Experiments of seasonal and extrasea­sonal predictions of summer monsoon precipitation." In Proceedings of International Conference on Mon­soon Variability and Predictability, 29–57. Trieste, May 9–13.


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