• Adv. Atmos. Sci.
    Asymmetric Variations in the Tropical Ascending Branches of Hadley Circulations and the Associated Mechanisms and Effects
    Bo SUN*1, 2, 3
    1.Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
    2.International Pacific Research Center and Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
    3.Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
    Abstract  This study investigates the variations in the tropical ascending branches (TABs) of Hadley circulations (HCs) during past decades, using a variety of reanalysis datasets. The northern tropical ascending branch (NTAB) and the southern tropical ascending branch (STAB), which are defined as the ascending branches of the Northern Hemisphere HC and Southern Hemisphere HC, respectively, are identified and analyzed regarding their trends and variability. The reanalysis datasets consistently show a persistent increase in STAB during past decades, whereas they show less consistency in NTAB regarding its decadal- to multidecadal variability, which generally features a decreasing trend. These asymmetric trends in STAB and NTAB are attributed to asymmetric trends in the tropical SSTs. The relationship between STAB/NTAB and tropical SSTs is further examined regarding their interannual and decadal- to multidecadal variability. On the interannual time scale, the STAB and NTAB are essentially modulated by the eastern-Pacific type of ENSO, with a strengthened (weakened) STAB (NTAB) under an El Niño condition. On the decadal- to multidecadal time scale, the variability of STAB and NTAB is closely related to the southern tropical SSTs and the meridional asymmetry of global tropical SSTs, respectively. The tropical eastern Pacific SSTs (southern tropical SSTs) dominate the tropical SST--NTAB/STAB relationship on the interannual (decadal- to multidecadal) scale, whereas the NTAB is a passive factor in this relationship. Moreover, a cross-hemispheric relationship between the NTAB/STAB and the HC upper-level meridional winds is revealed.
    Keywords tropical ascending branches      Hadley circulation      asymmetry      SST      trend      variability     
    Corresponding Authors: Bo SUN   
    Just Accepted Date: 30 August 2017  
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    Bo SUN. Asymmetric Variations in the Tropical Ascending Branches of Hadley Circulations and the Associated Mechanisms and Effects[J]. Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30 August 2017. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1007/s00376-017-7089-z.
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