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    Current Issue
      01 November 2018 , Volume 36 Issue 1   
    Aerosol Data Assimilation Using Data from Fengyun-3A and MODIS: Application to a Dust Storm over East Asia in 2011
    Xiaoli XIA, Jinzhong MIN, Feifei SHEN, Yuanbing WANG, Chun YANG
    2019 , 36 (1): 1 -14.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8075-9
    Abstract ( 251 )   HTML PDF (12194 KB) ( 92 )

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is the most basic parameter that describes the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols, and it can be used to indicate aerosol content. In this study, we assimilated AOD data from the Fengyun-3A (FY-3A) and MODIS meteorological satellite using the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation three-dimensional variational data assimilation system. Experiments were conducted for a dust storm over East Asia in April 2011. Each 0600 UTC analysis initialized a 24-h Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model forecast. The results generally showed that the assimilation of satellite AOD observational data can significantly improve model aerosol mass prediction skills. The AOD distribution of the analysis field was closer to the observations of the satellite after assimilation of satellite AOD data. In addition, the analysis resulting from the experiment assimilating both FY-3A/MERSI (Medium-resolution Spectral Imager) AOD data and MODIS AOD data had closer agreement with the ground-based values than the individual assimilation of the two datasets for the dust storm over East Asia. These results suggest that the Chinese FY-3A satellite aerosol products can be effectively applied to numerical models and dust weather analysis.

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    Role of the Nocturnal Low-level Jet in the Formation of the Morning Precipitation Peak over the Dabie Mountains
    Peiling FU, Kefeng ZHU, Kun ZHAO, Bowen ZHOU, Ming XUE
    2019 , 36 (1): 15 -28.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8095-5
    Abstract ( 107 )   HTML PDF (6018 KB) ( 61 )

    The diurnal variation of precipitation over the Dabie Mountains (DBM) in eastern China during the 2013 mei-yu season is investigated with forecasts of a regional convection-permitting model. Simulated precipitation is verified against surface rain-gauge observations. The observed morning precipitation peak on the windward (relative to the prevailing synoptic-scale wind) side of the DBM is reproduced with good spatial and temporal accuracy. The interaction between the DBM and a nocturnal boundary layer low-level jet (BLJ) due to the inertial oscillation mechanism is shown to be responsible for this precipitation peak. The BLJ is aligned with the lower-level southwesterly synoptic-scale flow that carries abundant moisture. The BLJ core is established at around 0200 LST upwind of the mountains. It moves towards the DBM and reaches maximum intensity at about 70 km ahead of the mountains. When the BLJ impinges upon the windward side of the DBM in the early morning, mechanical lifting of moist air leads to condensation and subsequent precipitation.

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    Observational Study on the Supercooled Fog Droplet Spectrum Distribution and Icing Accumulation Mechanism in Lushan, Southeast China
    Tianshu WANG, Shengjie NIU, Jingjing Lü, Yue ZHOU
    2019 , 36 (1): 29 -40.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8017-6
    Abstract ( 178 )   HTML PDF (824 KB) ( 33 )

    A fog monitor, hotplate total precipitation sensor, weather identifier and visibility sensor, ultrasonic wind speed meter, an icing gradient observation frame, and an automated weather station were involved in the observations at the Lushan Meteorological Bureau of Jiangxi Province, China. In this study, for the icing process under a cold surge from 20-25 January 2016, the duration, frequency, and spectrum distribution of agglomerate fog were analyzed. The effects of rain, snow, and supercooled fog on icing growth were studied and the icing and meteorological conditions at two heights (10 m and 1.5 m) were compared. There were 218 agglomerate fogs in this icing process, of which agglomerate fogs with durations less than and greater than 10 min accounted for 91.3% and 8.7%, respectively. The average time interval was 10.3 min. The fog droplet number concentration for sizes 2-15 μm and 30-50 μm increased during rainfall, and that for 2-27 μm decreased during snowfall. Icing grew rapidly (1.3 mm h-1) in the freezing rain phase but slowly (0.1 mm h-1) during the dry snow phase. Intensive supercooled fog, lower temperatures and increased wind speed all favored icing growth during dry snow (0.5 mm h-1). There were significant differences in the thickness, duration, density, and growth mechanism of icing at the heights of 10 m and 1.5 m. Differences in temperature and wind speed between the two heights were the main reasons for the differences in icing conditions, which indicated that icing was strongly affected by height.

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    Evaluating the Algorithm for Correction of the Bright Band Effects in QPEs with S-, C- and X-Band Dual-Polarized Radars
    Yang CAO, Debin SU, Xingang FAN, Hongbin CHEN
    2019 , 36 (1): 41 -54.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8032-7
    Abstract ( 126 )   HTML PDF (7845 KB) ( 32 )

    The bright band, a layer of enhanced radar reflectivity associated with melting ice particles, is a major source of significant overestimation in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) based on the Z-R (reflectivity factor-rain rate) relationship. The effects of the bright band on radar-based QPE can be eliminated by vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) correction. In this study, we applied bright-band correction algorithms to evaluate three different bands (S-, C- and X-band) of dual-polarized radars and to reduce overestimation errors in Z-R relationship-based QPEs. After the reflectivity was corrected by the algorithms using average VPR (AVPR) alone and a combination of average VPR and the vertical profile of the copolar correlation coefficient (AVPR+CC), the QPEs were derived. The bright-band correction and resulting QPEs were evaluated in eight precipitation events by comparing to the uncorrected reflectivity and rain-gauge observations, separately. The overestimation of Z-R relationship-based QPEs associated with the bright band was reduced after correction by the two schemes for which hourly rainfall was less than 5 mm. For the verification metrics of RMSE (root-mean-square error), RMAE (relative mean absolute error) and RMB (relative mean bias) of QPEs, averaged over all eight cases, the AVPR method improved from 2.28, 0.94 and 0.78 to 1.55, 0.60 and 0.40, respectively, while the AVPR+CC method improved to 1.44, 0.55 and 0.30, respectively. The QPEs after AVPR+CC correction had less overestimation than those after AVPR correction, and similar conclusions were drawn for all three different bands of dual-polarized radars.

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    Variation in Principal Modes of Midsummer Precipitation over Northeast China and Its Associated Atmospheric Circulation
    Tingting HAN, Shengping HE, Huijun WANG, Xin HAO
    2019 , 36 (1): 55 -64.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8072-z
    Abstract ( 106 )   HTML PDF (3375 KB) ( 67 )

    This study documents the first two principal modes of interannual variability of midsummer precipitation over Northeast China (NEC) and their associated atmospheric circulation anomalies. It is shown that the first principal mode exhibits the largest amount of variability in precipitation over the south of NEC (referred to as the south mode), whereas the second principal mode behaves with the greatest precipitation anomaly over the north of NEC (referred to as the north mode). Further findings reveal that, through modulating moisture transportation and upper- and lower-troposphere divergence circulation as well as vertical movement over NEC, the anomalous northwestern Pacific anticyclone and the anticyclone centered over northern NEC exert the dominant influence on the south and north modes, respectively. Additionally, it is quantitatively estimated that water vapor across the southern boundary of NEC dominates the moisture budget for the south mode, while the north mode has a close connection with moisture through NEC's northern and western boundaries. Furthermore, the north (south) mode is strongly related to the intensity (meridional shift) of the East Asian westerly jet.

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