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    Current Issue
      20 September 2019 , Volume 36 Issue 9   
    Preface to Special Issue on the National Report to the IUGG Centennial by CNC-IAMAS (2011-2018)
    2019 , 36 (9): 885 -885.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-019-9005-1
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML PDF (47 KB) ( 42 )
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    Recent Progress in Studies of the Variabilities and Mechanisms of the East Asian Monsoon in a Changing Climate
    Wen CHEN, Lin WANG, Juan FENG, Zhiping WEN, Tiaojiao MA, Xiuqun YANG, Chenghai WANG
    2019 , 36 (9): 887 -901.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-019-8230-y
    Abstract ( 448 )   HTML PDF (190 KB) ( 251 )

    Located in a monsoon domain, East Asia suffers devastating natural hazards induced by anomalous monsoon behaviors. East Asian monsoon (EAM) research has traditionally been a high priority for the Chinese climate community and is particularly challenging in a changing climate where the global mean temperature has been rising. Recent advances in studies of the variabilities and mechanisms of the EAM are reviewed in this paper, focusing on the interannual to interdecadal time scales. Some new results have been achieved in understanding the behaviors of the EAM, such as the evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), including both its onset and withdrawal over the South China Sea, the changes in the northern boundary activity of the EASM, or the transitional climate zone in East Asia, and the cycle of the EASM and the East Asian winter monsoon and their linkages. In addition, understanding of the mechanism of the EAM variability has improved in several aspects, including the impacts of different types of ENSO on the EAM, the impacts from the Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, and the roles of mid- to high-latitude processes. Finally, some scientific issues regarding our understanding of the EAM are proposed for future investigation.

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    Pathways of Influence of the Northern Hemisphere Mid-high Latitudes on East Asian Climate: A Review
    Jianping LI, Fei ZHENG, Cheng SUN, Juan FENG, Jing WANG
    2019 , 36 (9): 902 -921.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-019-8236-5
    Abstract ( 886 )   HTML PDF (4787 KB) ( 517 )

    This paper reviews recent progress made by Chinese scientists on the pathways of influence of the Northern Hemisphere mid-high latitudes on East Asian climate within the framework of a "coupled oceanic-atmospheric (land-atmospheric or sea-ice-atmospheric) bridge" and "chain coupled bridge". Four major categories of pathways are concentrated upon, as follows: Pathway A——from North Atlantic to East Asia; Pathway B——from the North Pacific to East Asia; Pathway C——from the Arctic to East Asia; and Pathway D——the synergistic effects of the mid-high latitudes and tropics. In addition, definitions of the terms "combined effect", "synergistic effect" and "antagonistic effect" of two or more factors of influence or processes and their criteria are introduced, so as to objectively investigate those effects in future research.

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    Progress in Semi-arid Climate Change Studies in China
    Jianping HUANG, Jieru MA, Xiaodan GUAN, Yue LI, Yongli HE
    2019 , 36 (9): 922 -937.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8200-9
    Abstract ( 539 )   HTML PDF (5754 KB) ( 184 )

    This article reviews recent progress in semi-arid climate change research in China. Results indicate that the areas of semi-arid regions have increased rapidly during recent years in China, with an increase of 33% during 1994-2008 compared to 1948-62. Studies have found that the expansion rate of semi-arid areas over China is nearly 10 times higher than that of arid and sub-humid areas, and is mainly transformed from sub-humid/humid regions. Meanwhile, the greatest warming during the past 100 years has been observed over semi-arid regions in China, and mainly induced by radiatively forced processes. The intensity of the regional temperature response over semi-arid regions has been amplified by land-atmosphere interactions and human activities. The decadal climate variation in semi-arid regions is modulated by oceanic oscillations, which induce land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts and affect the intensities of westerlies, planetary waves and blocking frequencies. In addition, the drier climates in semi-arid regions across China are also associated with the weakened East Asian summer monsoon in recent years. Moreover, dust aerosols in semi-arid regions may have altered precipitation by affecting the local energy and hydrological cycles. Finally, semi-arid regions in China are projected to continuously expand in the 21st century, which will increase the risk of desertification in the near future.

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    Recent Progress in Numerical Atmospheric Modeling in China
    Rucong YU, Yi ZHANG, Jianjie WANG, Jian LI, Haoming CHEN, Jiandong GONG, Jing CHEN
    2019 , 36 (9): 938 -960.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-019-8203-1
    Abstract ( 354 )   HTML PDF (3981 KB) ( 254 )

    This review summarizes the scientific and technical progress in atmospheric modeling in China since 2011, including the dynamical core, model physics, data assimilation, ensemble forecasting, and model evaluation strategies. In terms of the dynamical core, important efforts have been made in the improvement of the existing model formulations and in exploring new modeling approaches that can better adapt to massively parallel computers and global multiscale modeling. With regard to model physics, various achievements in physical representations have been made, especially a trend toward scale-aware parameterization for accommodating the increase of model resolution. In the field of data assimilation, a 4D-Var system has been developed and is operationally used by the National Meteorological Center of China, and its performance is promising. Furthermore, ensemble forecasting has played a more important role in operational forecast systems and progressed in many fundamental techniques. Model evaluation strategies, including key performance metrics and standardized experimental protocols, have been proposed and widely applied to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the systems, offering key routes for model improvement. The paper concludes with a concise summary of the status quo and a brief outlook in terms of future development.

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