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    Current Issue
      30 January 2018 , Volume 35 Issue 3   
    2017 was the Warmest Year on Record for the Global Ocean
    Lijing CHENG, Jiang ZHU
    2018 , 35 (3 ): 261 -263.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8011-z
    Abstract ( 914 )   HTML PDF (3928 KB) ( 452 )

    2017 was the warmest year on record for the global ocean according to an updated ocean analysis from Institute of Atmospheric Physics/Chinese Academy of Science. The oceans in the upper 2000 m were 1.51 × 1022 J warmer than the second warmest year of 2015 and 19.19 × 1022 J above the 1981–2010 climatological reference period.

    DATA: OHC_time_series_update_Jan2018
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    Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System in Tibet
    Daren LU, Weilin PAN, Yinan WANG
    2018 , 35 (3 ): 264 -267.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7251-7
    Abstract ( 112 )   HTML PDF (4665 KB) ( 81 )

    The Atmosphere Profiling Synthetic Observation System (APSOS) is the first ground-based facility for profiling atmospheric variables and multiple constituents in the whole (neutral) atmosphere from the surface up to the lower thermosphere. It enables simultaneous observations and extensive studies of the atmospheric vertical structure and constituent transport.

    The program under which this new facility was developed, funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, was launched in 2012 for developing a cluster of state-of-the-art instruments to facilitate atmospheric studies over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). After a one-year test run in Anhui Province at the Huainan Division of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (32.62°N, 116.98°E), APSOS was recently deployed at its final destination——Yangbajain (YBJ) International Cosmic Ray Observatory (30.21°N, 90.43°E; 4300 m MSL), located in YBJ valley, about 90 km northwest of the city of Lhasa, the Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Figure 1 shows an aerial view of the newly established observatory for APSOS in YBJ.

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    Assimilation of Feng-Yun-3B Satellite Microwave Humidity Sounder Data over Land
    Keyi CHEN, Niels BORMANN, Stephen ENGLISH, Jiang ZHU
    2018 , 35 (3 ): 268 -275.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7088-0
    Abstract ( 160 )   HTML PDF (3518 KB) ( 82 )

    The ECMWF has been assimilating Feng-Yun-3B (FY-3B) satellite microwave humidity sounder (MWHS) data over ocean in an operational forecasting system since 24 September 2014. It is more difficult, however, to assimilate microwave observations over land and sea ice than over the open ocean due to higher uncertainties in land surface temperature, surface emissivity and less effective cloud screening. We compare approaches in which the emissivity is retrieved dynamically from MWHS channel 1 [150 GHz (vertical polarization)] with the use of an evolving emissivity atlas from 89 GHz observations from the MWHS onboard NOAA and EUMETSAT satellites. The assimilation of the additional data over land improves the fit of short-range forecasts to other observations, notably ATMS (Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder) humidity channels, and the forecast impacts are mainly neutral to slightly positive over the first five days. The forecast impacts are better in boreal summer and the Southern Hemisphere. These results suggest that the techniques tested allow for effective assimilation of MWHS/FY-3B data over land.

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    Observational Study of Surface Wind along a Sloping Surface over Mountainous Terrain during Winter
    Young-Hee LEE, Gyuwon LEE, Sangwon JOO, Kwang-Deuk AHN
    2018 , 35 (3 ): 276 -284.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7075-5
    Abstract ( 111 )   HTML PDF (5770 KB) ( 93 )

    The 2018 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Korea, during February and March. We examined the near surface winds and wind gusts along the sloping surface at two outdoor venues in Pyeongchang during February and March using surface wind data. The outdoor venues are located in a complex, mountainous terrain, and hence the near-surface winds form intricate patterns due to the interplay between large-scale and locally forced winds. During February and March, the dominant wind at the ridge level is westerly; however, a significant wind direction change is observed along the sloping surface at the venues. The winds on the sloping surface are also influenced by thermal forcing, showing increased upslope flow during daytime. When neutral air flows over the hill, the windward and leeward flows show a significantly different behavior. A higher correlation of the wind speed between upper- and lower-level stations is shown in the windward region compared with the leeward region. The strong synoptic wind, small width of the ridge, and steep leeward ridge slope angle provide favorable conditions for flow separation at the leeward foot of the ridge. The gust factor increases with decreasing surface elevation and is larger during daytime than nighttime. A significantly large gust factor is also observed in the leeward region.

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    New Method for Estimating Daily Global Solar Radiation over Sloped Topography in China
    Guoping SHI, Xinfa QIU, Yan ZENG
    2018 , 35 (3 ): 285 -295.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-6243-y
    Abstract ( 67 )   HTML PDF (12194 KB) ( 54 )

    A new scheme for the estimation of daily global solar radiation over sloped topography in China is developed based on the Iqbal model C and MODIS cloud fraction. The effects of topography are determined using a digital elevation model. The scheme is tested using observations of solar radiation at 98 stations in China, and the results show that the mean absolute bias error is 1.51 MJ m-2 d-1 and the mean relative absolute bias error is 10.57%. Based on calculations using this scheme, the distribution of daily global solar radiation over slopes in China on four days in the middle of each season (15 January, 15 April, 15 July and 15 October 2003) at a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km are analyzed. To investigate the effects of topography on global solar radiation, the results determined in four mountains areas (Tianshan, Kunlun Mountains, Qinling, and Nanling) are discussed, and the typical characteristics of solar radiation over sloped surfaces revealed. In general, the new scheme can produce reasonable characteristics of solar radiation distribution at a high spatial resolution in mountain areas, which will be useful in analyses of mountain climate and planning for agricultural production.

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