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    Current Issue
      16 April 2018 , Volume 35 Issue 6   
    First Global Carbon Dioxide Maps Produced from TanSat Measurements
    Dongxu YANG, Yi LIU, Zhaonan CAI, Xi CHEN, Lu YAO, Daren LU
    2018 , 35 (6 ): 621 -623.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-7312-6
    Abstract ( 52 )   HTML PDF (4304 KB) ( 56 )
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    SPARC Local Workshop on "WCRP Grand Challenges and Regional Climate Change"
    Joowan KIM, Seok-Woo SON, Hye-Jin KIM, Baek-Min KIM, Changhyun YOO
    2018 , 35 (6 ): 624 -627.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-018-8045-2
    Abstract ( 97 )   HTML PDF (9032 KB) ( 44 )
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    Improved Land Use and Leaf Area Index Enhances WRF-3DVAR Satellite Radiance Assimilation: A Case Study Focusing on Rainfall Simulation in the Shule River Basin during July 2013
    Junhua YANG, Zhenming JI, Deliang CHEN, Shichang KANG, Congshen FU, Keqin DUAN, Miaogen SHEN
    2018 , 35 (6 ): 628 -644.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7120-4
    Abstract ( 25 )   HTML PDF (8573 KB) ( 14 )

    The application of satellite radiance assimilation can improve the simulation of precipitation by numerical weather prediction models. However, substantial quantities of satellite data, especially those derived from low-level (surface-sensitive) channels, are rejected for use because of the difficulty in realistically modeling land surface emissivity and energy budgets. Here, we used an improved land use and leaf area index (LAI) dataset in the WRF-3DVAR assimilation system to explore the benefit of using improved quality of land surface information to improve rainfall simulation for the Shule River Basin in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau as a case study. The results for July 2013 show that, for low-level channels (e.g., channel 3), the underestimation of brightness temperature in the original simulation was largely removed by more realistic land surface information. In addition, more satellite data could be utilized in the assimilation because the realistic land use and LAI data allowed more satellite radiance data to pass the deviation test and get used by the assimilation, which resulted in improved initial driving fields and better simulation in terms of temperature, relative humidity, vertical convection, and cumulative precipitation.

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    Interannual Weakening of the Tropical Pacific Walker Circulation Due to Strong Tropical Volcanism
    Jiapeng MIAO, Tao WANG, Huijun WANG, Jianqi SUN
    2018 , 35 (6 ): 645 -658.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7134-y
    Abstract ( 226 )   HTML PDF (4604 KB) ( 89 )

    In order to examine the response of the tropical Pacific Walker circulation (PWC) to strong tropical volcanic eruptions (SVEs), we analyzed a three-member long-term simulation performed with HadCM3, and carried out four additional CAM4 experiments. We found that the PWC shows a significant interannual weakening after SVEs. The cooling effect from SVEs is able to cool the entire tropics. However, cooling over the Maritime Continent is stronger than that over the central-eastern tropical Pacific. Thus, non-uniform zonal temperature anomalies can be seen following SVEs. As a result, the sea level pressure gradient between the tropical Pacific and the Maritime Continent is reduced, which weakens trade winds over the tropical Pacific. Therefore, the PWC is weakened during this period. At the same time, due to the cooling subtropical and midlatitude Pacific, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are weakened and shift to the equator. These changes also contribute to the weakened PWC. Meanwhile, through the positive Bjerknes feedback, weakened trade winds cause El Niño-like SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific, which in turn further influence the PWC. Therefore, the PWC significantly weakens after SVEs. The CAM4 experiments further confirm the influences from surface cooling over the Maritime Continent and subtropical/midlatitude Pacific on the PWC. Moreover, they indicate that the stronger cooling over the Maritime Continent plays a dominant role in weakening the PWC after SVEs. In the observations, a weakened PWC and a related El Niño-like SST pattern can be found following SVEs.

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    Evaluation of the New Dynamic Global Vegetation Model in CAS-ESM
    Jiawen ZHU, Xiaodong ZENG, Minghua ZHANG, Yongjiu DAI, Duoying JI, Fang LI, Qian ZHANG, He ZHANG, Xiang SONG
    2018 , 35 (6 ): 659 -670.   DOI: 10.1007/s00376-017-7154-7
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML PDF (3131 KB) ( 50 )

    In the past several decades, dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have been the most widely used and appropriate tool at the global scale to investigate vegetation-climate interactions. At the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, a new version of DGVM (IAP-DGVM) has been developed and coupled to the Common Land Model (CoLM) within the framework of the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Earth System Model (CAS-ESM). This work reports the performance of IAP-DGVM through comparisons with that of the default DGVM of CoLM (CoLM-DGVM) and observations. With respect to CoLM-DGVM, IAP-DGVM simulated fewer tropical trees, more "needleleaf evergreen boreal tree" and "broadleaf deciduous boreal shrub", and a better representation of grasses. These contributed to a more realistic vegetation distribution in IAP-DGVM, including spatial patterns, total areas, and compositions. Moreover, IAP-DGVM also produced more accurate carbon fluxes than CoLM-DGVM when compared with observational estimates. Gross primary productivity and net primary production in IAP-DGVM were in better agreement with observations than those of CoLM-DGVM, and the tropical pattern of fire carbon emissions in IAP-DGVM was much more consistent with the observation than that in CoLM-DGVM. The leaf area index simulated by IAP-DGVM was closer to the observation than that of CoLM-DGVM; however, both simulated values about twice as large as in the observation. This evaluation provides valuable information for the application of CAS-ESM, as well as for other model communities in terms of a comparative benchmark.

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  • CN 11-1925/04

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